# Types of DC Generators - Shunt, Series & Compound

Based on the methods of the interconnection of windings the following types of dc generators are available.

## Separately excited DC Generator :

Separately excited dc generators are those whose field winding is excited by an external d.c. source.

E = V + Ia Ra + BCD

## Self-excited DC Generators :

Self-excited dc generators are those whose field windings are excited by the same current which is connected to the armature winding terminals. These generators consist of permanent magnetic poles, in which there is always some magnetic flux is present and is known as residual magnetism. Due to this residual magnetism, when the armature is rotated, some e.m.f. and hence current is produced which is partially or fully passed through the field coils thereby strengthening the residual flux.

There are three types of self-excited generators and named according to the manner in which their field windings are connected to the armature.

### Shunt Generator :

In dc shunt generator, the field winding is connected across the armature terminals.

Field current flows due to the emf induced in the armature because of the rotation of the armature by the prime mover. When the armature just starts rotating a small amount of emf is induced in the armature due to the residual magnetism of the field. This emf causes some current to flow in the field winding which causes a rise in the magnitude of the emf induced. This in turn increases the field current which causes more flux and hence more induced emf.

A shunt generator will excite only if the poles have some residual magnetism and the resistance of the field circuit winding has some value less than a critical value. The actual value depends on the machine and its speed.

Ia = IL + Ish
Ish = V / Rsh
E = V + Ia Ra + BCD

### Series Generator :

In this case, the field windings are connected in series with the armature terminals. Due to the series connection armature is made with few turns as the full-load current passes through it. These generators are used for special purposes such as boosters etc.

Ia = Ise/IL
E = V + Ia (Ra + Rse) + BCD

### Compound Generator :

In a compound generator, there are two field windings, namely shunt-field winding and series-field winding. The shunt field winding is connected in parallel with the armature and the series-field winding is connected in series with the combinations.

The series winding will carry a large armature current Ia or IL and therefore it is made of wires of large cross-section and has a few turns only. The resistance of a series winding is very small. The shunt winding is made up of wires of small cross-sections and has high resistance. Since the resistance of the shunt field winding is high, the current flowing through it is small in comparison with the generator armature current. A compound generator, therefore, combines the features of dc shunt and series generators.

### i. Long-Shunt Compound Generator :

IL = Ise
Ia = Ish + IL
Ish = (E – Ia Ra)/Rsh
E = V + Ia Ra + Ise Rse + BCD

### ii. Short-Shunt Compound Generator :

Ia = Ise
Ia = Ish + IL
Ish = V/Rsh
E = V + Ia (Ra + Rse) + BCD

### Reference -

#### Bakshi, U.A., and V.U. Bakshi. “D.C. Generator.” Electrical Machines - I, Technical Publications, 2009, pp. 1–22-1–27.Types of DC Generator-Separately Excited and Self Excited. (n.d.). Retrieved January 31, 2020, from https://circuitglobe.com/types-of-dc-generator-separately-excited-and-self-excited.html

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