Power Systems

Transformer Faults and Transformer Protection Schemes

The power transformer is the major and very important component of the power system. Also, the possibility of fault in a transformer is rare compared to a generator, but it must be disconnected as quickly as possible if the fault…

Generator Faults and Protection Schemes Employed

In a power system, a generator or alternator is the most important and costly equipment. As it is accompanied by a prime mover, excitation system, voltage regulator, cooling system, etc., its protection becomes very complex and e…

Restricted Earth Fault Protection of Generator or Alternator

A restricted earth fault is a normal earth fault that is restricted to a particular zone. Hence, the restricted earth fault protection takes care of the faults that occurred only within that particular zone neglecting the faults …

Unbalanced Loading Protection of Generator

Effect of Unbalanced Loading On Generator : The unbalanced loading on a generator can be due to unsymmetrical faults (both internal and external) or due to maloperation of the circuit breaker (resulting in the opening of only on…

Effect of Power Swing or Power Surge on Distance Relays

When there is a sudden and large change in the power system i.e., due to removal of a fault or a sudden change in the load, there will be a change in the phase angle between the induced voltage on the line. Consider a transmissio…

Torque Equation of Induction Relay - its Derivation

The induction relay works on the principle of electromagnetic induction similar to the induction motor and energy meter. It consists of two electromagnets and a rotating disc placed between the two electromagnets. The torque prod…

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