Ac Series Motor - Construction & Principle of Operation

Principle of Operation of A.C. Series Motor :

      An ordinary d.c.series motor will run in the same direction regardless of the polarity of the supply. The direction of the torque depends upon the relative directions in space of flux and armature current. If the line terminals are reversed, both the field and armature current are reversed, the direction of torque remains unchanged. Therefore, the motor continuous to rotate in the same direction. 

     So when normal d.c. series motor is connected to an a.c. supply, both field and armature currents reverse simultaneously and unidirectional torque is produced in the motor.

     Consider the case of a two-pole motor and let the alternating current be in its positive half, then the polarity of the field poles and the currents flowing through the armature conductors be as indicated in Figure. The armature conductors carry inward currents +ve under N-pole and outward currents -ve under S-pole. By applying Fleming's left hand rule it will be seen that the torque developed in the armature will try to rotate in an anti-clockwise direction.

Ac Series Motor

     During the next instant, the alternating current goes through the negative half cycle Now the current through the field winding and armature will also change. It will be again seen that the armature will tend to rotate in the same direction because of uniform torque produce the two halves of the cycle.

Ac Series Motor

      Thus a series motor can run on both the d.c. supply and a.c. supply

     The performance of dc Series motor works on A.C. Supply is not satisfactory due to the following reasons  

1. The efficiency is low. This is because of the increase in core losses due to alternating flux.

2. The reactance of the field and armature winding increases as the supply given is alternating, which makes the machine to run at low power factor.

3. Considerable sparking at brushes will occur. This is due to poor commutation. The voltage induced by transformer action in the coil undergoing commutation further intensifies commutation difficulties.

Constructional Features :

Modification in Design of A.C. Series Motor :

     Some modifications are required to have a satisfactory performance of d.c. series motor on a.c supply, when it is called as a.c. series motor. The modifications are : 

1. Fully laminated poles and yokes must be used in order to reduce eddy current losses.

2. The power factor can be improved by reducing field and armature reactances. 

     In order to reduce field reactance, the field winding is designed with less number of turns. Lower pole flux also reduces the transformer emf in the commutating coil.

3. The motor should be provided with a large number of poles each supplying less flux per pole.

4. Reduction in the number of turns on the field winding would also reduce field flux. To keep the torque constant on the shaft, the armature turns should be increased proportionately. This increases the armature reaction and armature reactance. 

5. Compensating winding should be employed to lower the armature reactance as far as possible. Compensation also improves commutation.

   The flux produced by compensating winding is opposite to that produced by the armature and effectively neutralizes the armature reaction.

6. The armature coils are single turn coils and brushes of less width are used not to short circuit more than two coils at a time. 

7. The air gap is made very small so that fewer field turns can be used per pole.

8. The frequency of supply used is reduced. The transformer emf is proportional to frequency and hence good commutation is easy at lower frequencies.

Characteristic of A.C. Series Motor :

Ac Series Motor

     The characteristics of a.c. series motor is similar to that of d.c. series motor. The torque is proportional to the square of the armature current and speed is inversely proportional to the armature current. The series motors must always be started with some load on it because at the starting speed of the motor is very high due to high starting torque i.e., 3 to 4 times the full load torque.

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